Aquaculture and fishing provide about 15% of the average animal protein consumed by 2.9 billion people worldwide and is still growing. Approximately 43.5 million people are employed directly in these sectors and 520 million people indirectly earn their livelihoods from the aquaculture and fishing industries. Nanotechnology is no longer an appropriate field for researchers, but an important economic sector that is growing very fast and having a big impact, new nanoscale products with functionalities. new and original. Newly fabricated, nanoparticle modified (NPs) nanostructured products are key to the success of the nanotechnology industry. With sizes between 1 and 100 nm in at least one dimension, nanosilver (SNPs) exhibit unique physical and chemical properties that differ from their bulk materials, such as the ratio of surface area to large volume. more, leading to greater response. Due to their remarkable properties, SNPs have been widely used in various fields such as energy and electronics, wastewater treatment, personal care products, medicine, and agriculture.
1. Application of nanosilver in aquatic feed production
One of the most important nanotechnology applications in aquaculture is in feed production where the use of nanotechnology has been shown to be effective for (i) micronutrient distribution (e.g., NP). chitosan), (ii) the amount of feed produced per unit time (e.g. single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), fulleren (C 60) and nTiO 2), and (iii) promoting growth growth (eg, nanoFe, nanoSe, nanoTiO 2 and nanoZnO), destroying mycotoxins (eg nanosilver)
2. Control diseases in aquaculture species
The aquaculture industry has faced many problems with pathogens (bacteria, fungi and viruses) commonly controlled with chemical disinfectants and antibiotics. Traditional disinfectants (e.g. hydrogen peroxide and malachite green), antibiotics (eg, sulfonamide and tetracycline), and worm removers (e.g., pyrethroid and avermectins) are commonly used. In large quantities, there are some limitations such as high drug costs, negative effects on non-target organisms, and increased resistance to pathogens.
Numerous studies indicate that the use of nanosilver (SNPs) as a potential antimicrobial agent, emphasizes antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquaculture, nanoparticle-based vaccines, and the development of specific and sensitive tools. colds to diagnose bacterial, fungal and viral diseases in aquaculture.
Disease prevention and control is very important for aquaculture from an economic and environmental point of view. Therefore, vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming. Nano-coated vaccine against Listonella anguillarum in Asian carp (Rajeshkumar et al. 2009), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious myoncronis virus (IMNV) (i.e. shrimp culture) (Rajeshkumar et al. 2009; Chalamcheria 2015) was developed.
In the process of adding food directly to the water, nutrients can be transferred from the pellet to the water. The nanosilver solution can be used as a coating agent for nutrients that are readily degradable when in contact with water. A study by Klinkesorn and Mcclements (2009) in vitro and demonstrated that encapsulation of tuna oil droplets, with chitosan SNPs, increases physical stability and then reduces fatty acids released from emulsion. similarity.
4. Nanotechnology in wastewater treatment, aquaculture waste
Water pollution is one of the biggest threats to aquaculture production. Recently, the application of nanoparticles based on aerogels, polymers and composites, hydrophobic organoclays and magnetically engineered nanoparticles for water treatment and filtration has been investigated.
Au nano, nanosilver Ag CNTs, nano Fe, lantan (La) and nano TiO 2 are used to remove pesticides, ammonia, heavy metals and phosphates from water and wastewater. Quantum dots due to their unique optical properties (Vázquez-González and Carrillo-Carrion2014) have been proposed for the detection of heavy metals in aquaculture media.
5. Using nanosilver in the packaging helps to preserve seafood longer
Plastic particles are mixed with nano silver to create antibacterial resin particles. Packaging made from antibacterial plastic particles can help increase the shelf life of seafood, thanks to the mechanism by which silver nanoparticles escape from the pores on the packaging.