Current global projections confirm that by 2025, poultry meat will have the highest levels of production and consumption, on beef, veal, pigs and sheep. ( OECD / FAO, 2016 ). Figure 1 shows that poultry meat is already the most consumed meat in many countries.
Consumption of poultry increases for a number of reasons
Chicken is an accessible and affordable source of protein with a low fat content and there are few religious or cultural barriers associated with chicken consumption.
Ease of cooking also contributes to the popularity of poultry meat with consumers ( Haley, 2001).
The global population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, and based on recent trends, as well as increased income growth among the poorer population groups, will lead to an unprecedented increase. there is a need for animal protein.( King et al., 2017).
Chickens have high feed conversion efficiency compared to other poultry or livestock (FAO, 2010), raise more feed on less land with less input than any other terrestrial feed industry. (FAO, 2010) and, compared to other sources of dietary protein, chicken is also a low-greenhouse gas-emitting food. (Caro, Davis, Bastianoni và Caldeira, 2017).
In the poultry industry, food-borne pathogens of greatest concern are Salmonella and Campylobacter, which may be present in the gut or skin composition of healthy chickens, and may be contaminated with meat. Fortunately, Salmonella and Campylobacter are heat sensitive and should not be transferred to humans if the meat has been thoroughly prepared. However, salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are among the most frequently reported foodborne illnesses worldwide (WHO., 2015). Average global number of foodborne illnesses and deaths caused by Campylobacter spp. 16% and 5% respectively. While the average global number of foodborne illnesses and deaths is attributed to Salmonella. enterica is 13% and 14%, respectively.(WHO., 2015).
The long-term use of chemical biocides has increased the resistance of microorganisms. The search for a safer, more effective disinfectant is focused. Through many studies, nano-silver is known as a safe and non-resistant biocide thanks to its unique chemical and physical bactericidal mechanism.
Silver nanoparticles can be applied from the very beginning to the consumers, such as breeders, hatcheries, farms, feed factories, collection and transport of live poultry, processing plants. handle, distribution channel and consumer’s own kitchen.
1. Using nano silver to disinfect farms, livestock tools and add to food helps prevent mycotoxins, prevent and treat diseases for livestock.
A recent review detailed the potential benefits of using nanoparticles as poultry feed additives, providing an excellent foundation for incorporation in different compounds, for example. vaccines and nutritional supplements, due to a large surface-to-volume ratio and high absorption in the body. Nanoparticles can enable the direct transport of compounds to targeted organs or systems while avoiding the rapid degradation potential commonly found in antibiotics and can provide many health benefits. strong. Silver, currently the most commonly studied nanoparticle for use in chicken feed, has been shown to improve chicken microbiota. (Gangadoo, Stanley, Hughes, Moore, & Chapman, 2016),
Research has demonstrated that nanosilver applied to the sterilization of eggs and incubators have reduced microbial contamination. The inoculant used showed a bactericidal and fungicidal effect comparable to UV radiation, and its effectiveness increased during the incubation process. In the case of fungi, on day 7 of incubation, nano-paper misting provides better protection of the egg surface than UV irradiation.
Very good results have been obtained in the case of gaseous organic contaminants. After applying nano inoculants, these levels decreased by 86%. The level of pollution in the air inside an incubator that is decontaminated with UV light is 40% higher than in an incubator sterilized with a nanofilter.
2. Disinfectant for equipment and production rooms
In meat production environments, food left over in processing machines and production rooms, leaving fresh food surfaces can cause microbiological cross-contamination (Konopka, Kowalski, & Wzorek, 2009). However, the possibility of food contamination is low when the processing line environment is kept clean by applying washing and disinfection procedures (Konopka et al., 2009). Since meat mainly contains protein, fat and moisture, lye is the most common cleaning solution used in poultry processing plants.
The widespread use of disinfectants has long led to speculation about the development of drug resistance by microorganisms (Ortega Morente et al., 2013). The resistance of microorganisms and other microorganisms to conventional disinfectants will require new solutions in this area. New technologies, including nanomaterials with antimicrobial activity, have been used for effective disinfection and microbial control.
A nanosilver product is reported to have a strong antimicrobial effect on four important foodborne pathogens; Escherichia coliO157: H7 (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.12 μg / mL, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) = 6.25 μg / mL), Listeria monocytogenes (MIC = 6.25 μg / mL, MBC = 6.25 μg / mL), Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 3.12 μg / mL, MBC = 6.25 μg / mL) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (MIC = 3.12 μg / mL, MBC = 6, 25 μg / mL) ( Zarei, Jamnejad, & Khajehali, 2014 ).
3. Surface disinfectant
Food spills or water that flows from processing, packaging, storage and transport contain a complex mixture of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and sugars, providing an ideal environment for bacteria to survive and thrive. development (Brown et al., 2014).
Biofilms are formed by pathogenic bacteria that can create a long-term source of contamination of the product. Biofilms support the survival of bacteria under suboptimal conditions and increase resistance to disinfectants and antimicrobials (Brown và cộng sự, 2014 ).
Acidic biofilm environments also cause biofilm formation for devices such as surfaces, chutes, cutting tables, piping systems, pipes and conveyors. As a result, equipment corrosion, damage, and reduced heat transfer efficiency can cause equipment to need more frequent maintenance and replacement.
In poultry processing environments, surface biocides can have a useful function in preventing clogging of processing machines and food processing and handling equipment that are difficult to clean (e.g. conveyor belts). , refrigerator, container). Additionally, surface disinfectants can reduce production costs by allowing the use of more efficient and less usable cleaning and disinfection products, as well as reducing the need for both cleaning and cleaning times. stop the machine.
Such antibacterial surfaces use nanoscale metals such as nanosilver, and photocatalytic metal oxide nanoparticles (such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide), or nanoscale terrain that allows the creation of The surface has anti-fouling properties (Eleftheriadou, Pyrgiotakis, & Demokritou, 2017). Nanosilver fridges [Daewoo® and Samsung®] and cutting boards using this principle are marketed [Pro-Idee GmbH & Co.]. KG (Germany) and A-DO Global (Korea)] (PEN., 2013). Nano coatings for photocatalytic disinfection of surfaces and water are also on the market soon.
4. Antibacterial nanosilver protective clothing
Other potential sources of contamination in the poultry processing environment include employees who spread bacteria through clothing or their movement from one area of the slaughter plant to another (FSIS., 2008 ).
A wide range of nanosilver clothing items are available, including pants (Contourwear, USA), socks (AgActive, UK; JR Nanotech PLC, UK; NanoTrade, Czech Republic; Vital Age, USA ; Sharper Image ®, USA; ArcticShield ®, USA; Lexon Nanotech, Inc., USA; AgActive, UK; AgActive, Australia; SongSing Nano Technology Co., Ltd., Taiwan; Nano-Infinity Nanotech Co ., Ltd., Taiwan), jacket (Sanyo-Shokai, Japan) and mask (Emergency filter product, USA; Nanux Co., Ltd., Korea).
Several companies produce a wide variety of clothing items (Goodweaver Textiles Co. Ltd., Taiwan; NanoTrade, Czech Republic; Greenyarn LLC., USA; Nanbabies ®, USA; SilberSchutz, Germany; Jack Wolfskin, Germany) and nano fabrics (Macker International Apparel Inc., Canada; Tianjin Rongze Textile Co., Ltd., China; Mipan ®, Korea; Miyuki Keorki Co., Japan) ( PEN., 2013).
5. Applications in air filters
Air plays an important role in pathogen transmission and can be involved in poultry meat contamination at different stages of slaughter and processing (Liang et al., 2013, Lues et al., 2007 , Whyte et al., 2001). The highest number of microorganisms was recorded during the primary processing stages, i.e. the receiving and elimination areas, with a certain decrease in the slaughter, preliminary processing, and split areas. Small and packed ( Liang et al., 2013 , Lues et al, 2007 , Whyte et al, 2001 ).
Brincat et al. (2016) reviewed and evaluated existing air purification technologies used in cold storage and food storage and reported that the nano silver air filter represents an emerging technology that could become more widespread. used worldwide in the coming years. NanoSilver filters have been impregnated with fungicidal or bactericidal materials, including silver or other metals, and show a high antimicrobial effect due to the relatively large surface area for their function.
However, the very high efficiency of these rugs at very small particle sizes can be a disadvantage as the filter will refill faster and need to be replaced at a higher frequency (Brincat et al., 2016). ). The air filter uses nanomaterials (mainly silver) and the antibacterial claim is available on the market from C&C Co., Ltd. (Korea), Airo Co., Ltd. (Korea), Shinah Electronics Co., Ltd. (South Korea), Clean Air Technology Corp. (Korea), Samsung (Korea)), SongSing Nano Technology Co., Ltd. (Taiwan), Kind Home Ind. Co. Ltd. (Taiwan), Transit Electronics Co., Ltd. (China), US Global Nanospace, Inc. (United States) and Winix Inc. (USA) ( PEN., 2013 ).
6. Nanosilver livestock industry wastewater treatment
The poultry industry uses a considerable amount of water during processing, especially during heating and cooling operations. The conditions in the hairdressing machine and the chiller must be maintained correctly, otherwise they could be a major source of cross contamination between carcasses.( FAO / WHO, 2009 )
Water filtration is also required for waste management, as water is used for hair removal, washing, and cleaning. Poultry processing plants cannot simply be discharged into lakes and rivers because of relatively high levels of organic matter such as proteins and fats, and microorganisms are present. ( Barbut, 2001 ).
This water must be treated to some degree before it can be discharged into municipal or local water treatment facilities. Processes ranging from simple filtration to complex aerobic lagoons can be used ( Barbut, 2001 ).
Nanomaterials are rapidly emerging as potential candidates for water treatment instead of conventional technologies, although their efficiency is often very expensive and time-consuming. (Bhattacharya và cộng sự, 2013 ).
Most of the nanotechnology applications in water treatment are still in the research phase in the laboratory (Rodrigues et al., 2017). However, there are several pilot and field trials and several nanotechnology available on the market for water treatment or resource recovery (e.g. nano sorbent, nano-activated films, catalysts). nano or nano activated disinfection system) ( Rodrigues và cộng sự, 2017 ).
7. Antibacterial nanosilver-packaging helps to preserve food for longer
The use of nanotechnology in the next processing plant (FPP) food contact material can also provide a huge benefit, especially for an antibacterial intervention against Listeria bacteria. (Berrang, Meinersmann, Frank, & Ladely, 2010 ).
The two nanomaterials with the most patents are nanoclay and nanosilver (Drew & Hagen, 2016). Current applications of nanomaterials in food packaging include enhancing barrier properties through the incorporation of nano fillers (e.g. nano clay), ‘aggressive’ food packaging. ‘; with the controlled deliberate release of substances that act as antimicrobial materials to improve the shelf life of foods (e.g. nanosilver)